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62 American Statistical Association. [62 

mentary schools in foreign countries are given with the latest returns. 
In the study of city schools it is noted that the average length of the 
school term is being further decreased, and that there is a great in- 
crease, both relative and absolute, in the cost of the schools. In the 
North Atlantic division the average length of the school term has 
decreased one day. While the enrollment of pupils in the cities 
under consideration increased 4.86 per cent during the year, the 
increase in total expense was 8.96 per cent. 

Another attempt is made to ascertain the kinds of schools in which 
students entering college are prepared. Not much success attends 
the efforts of the bureau in this direction. 

The income reported by universities and colleges was $14,601,034. 
Of this amount $5,466,810 was derived from tuition fees; 11.6 
per cent was appropriated by cities and States ; 4.7 per cent appro- 
priated by the general government. 

The total number of medical students was 19,752 ; the number of 
law students was 6776. 

A large part of the first volume is devoted to the study of education 
in foreign countries, and to education at the Columbian Exposition, 
including European and American criticism. There is also a section 
devoted to the World's Library Congress. 

Volume Two contains documents illustrative of American educa- 
tional history ; a sketch of the National Education Association ; a 
chapter on the education of the negro, with statistics of institutions 
for educating the colored race ; a chapter on pecuniary aid for stu- 
dents in universities and colleges, showing the number of scholarships 
that are available in various institutions ; and chapters on the univer- 
sity extension movement and medical education. 


The following is taken from the Bulletin of the American Geo- 
graphical Quarterly, New York, December, 1895. It is an interest- 
ing example of statistical method. 

The Bulletin of the Italian Geographical Society, in a note on the 
Italian population of New York, makes the following statement : 
" The American statistics cannot be taken as a basis. It will be 
sufficient to quote the fact that the census of 1890 gave only 182,000 

63] Italian Immigration. 63 

Italians living in the United States, while it is certain that the num- 
ber then approached and now exceeds 500,000."* 

A wise man has said that nothing is certain but death and taxes. 
There may be, at the present time, 500,000 Italians in the United 
States, but the number of 182,580 in the Census returns of 1890 is, 
nevertheless, to be accepted with confidence. 

The Italian immigration was for many years insignificant. It 
amounted for the 60 years, 1821-80, to 87,774, according to the sta- 
tistics of the Italian Government,! but according to the tabulated 
statement in the U. S. Census Report for 1890 {Population, Part I, 
p. Ixxx) the total was 81,249. The difference is accounted for by the 
immigration into Canada and British Columbia, which are frequently 
included, in the Italian returns, with the United States, and in some 
degree by the fact that the American Census is taken in the middle 
of the calendar year. 

In 1880 the number of resident Italians was 44,230. There were 
added to these in the next 10 years 208,792, and the apparent total 
for the year 1890 is, therefore, 253,022. 

From this total must be deducted, however, the mortality for the 
10 years, and the immigration into Canada. | 

It is well known that for the most part the Italians take up their 
abode in the large cities of the country. The annual death rate of 
the white population in 12 of these cities was : — § 

Newark, . . 
New York, 
Chicago, . . 
Brooklyn, . . 
St. Lonis, . . 

28.67 per 1000 Boston, 24.62 per 1000 

28.47 " " San Francisco, . . 23.57 " " 

21.03 " " New Orleans, . . . 25.41 " " 

22.28 •' " Buffalo 19.83 " " 

25.41 " " Baltimore, .... 22.61 " " 

18.15 " •' Pittsburg 21.56 " " 

The average of these figures is 23.47 ; but those who are acquainted 
with the conditions of Italian life in America cannot doubt that the 
death rate among people of that community is very nearly as high as 
that recorded for the city of New York. If the annual rate were no 

* Non si possono prendere per base le statistiche americane ; bastera citare come il cen- 
simento del 1890 dasse per residenti agli Stati-Uniti soli 182,000 Italiani, mentre e certo che 
allora avvicinavano e ora passano il mezzo milione. — Bollettino delta Soc. Geog. Italiana, 
Ser. tii, Vol. viii, Fas. x , p. 325. 

t The figures are taken from the Slatistica delta Emiyrazhme Italiana aWEstero nel 
]881,confrontata von quella degli Aivni Precedent!, eee. Homa, 1882. Published by the 
Direzione della Statistica Generale. 

t This latter, though an unknown quantity, must not be forgotten. 

§ Compendium of the Eleventh Census, 1890. Part II, Miscellaneous Statistics, p. 5. 

64 American Statistical Association. [64 

higher than 23.47 per 1000 it would account for 59,353 persons of 
the apparent total for 1890, and leave 11,089 for the Canadian quota. 
If the death rate is estimated at 27 per 1000 the apparent total for 
1890 will be reduced to 184,712, which exceeds the Census figures 
for 1890 by 2132 persons, to be looked for in Canada and British 

There has been a great increase in the volume of the immigration 
for the past five years. The Almanack de Goiha for 1895, taking its 
figures from the Italian official publication, makes the number of 
departures for the United States alone, in the four years, 1890-93, 
185,029. An approximate total for the beginning of the year 1895 
may be reached by adding together these figures : — 

Census return for 1890, 182,580 

Immigration, 1890-93, 185,029 

Estimate for 1894, 50,000 


In a question of this kind it does not appear that any other 
authority can take the place of the official census. 


The following joint resolutions, relating to the federal census, have 
been passed by Congress : — 

Whereas representatives of various Governments which make decennial 
enumerations of the people are making efforts to secure uniformity in the 
inquiries to be used in future censuses ; and 

Whereas also it is expedient to give early consideration to some com- 
prehensive plan for the establishment of a permanent census service : 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, that the Commissioner of 
Labor, now in charge of the Eleventh Census, is hereby authorized and 
directed to correspond with tine census officers of other Governments for 
the purpose of securing uniformity in the inquiries relating to the people 
to be used in future censuses ; and that said Commissioner is also hereby 
directed to report to Congress for its consideration, as soon as practica- 
ble, a plan for a permanent census service.